There are a variety of factors that impact speech clarity and making oneself understood (intelligible). Articulation and Phonology Articulation describes the accuracy by which an individual is able to produce the different sounds that make up spoken words. Phonological processing errors occur when children use immature patterns of articulation. Fluency Fluency refers to the ease in which a speaker can produce speech. Stuttering is a fluency disorder. It can be characterized by prolongations of sounds, repetitions of sounds, blocks, and more. Stuttering can have a significant impact on a speaker’s confidence and self-esteem.
Language disorders impact an individual’s ability to interact with others. Expressive Language Expressive Language describes the ability to make oneself understood. This can include gestures, talking, vocabulary, asking questions, and more. Disorders and delays in expressive language development could include: late talking, poor vocabulary, difficulty explaining, sentence structure errors, etc. Receptive Language Receptive language is the ability to understand the intended meaning of language. This can include understanding directions or questions, understanding complex conversation, or difficulty learning. Pragmatic/Social Language Pragmatic language involves one’s social skills. This is often an area of concern with children who have autism spectrum disorder (ASD).